For a passive but effective "work", it is important that the heat loss is minimized and the heat production is designed as efficiently as possible. Hence, the passive houses first all very well thermally insulated and the windows feature a triple glazing. Moreover, already in the planning of any thermal bridges are avoided and a ventilation system with heat recovery installed. Reaches the passive house heat from the sun, the in-house electrical appliances, as well as the eventual solar panels on the roof for the production of warm water.
Thus, the passive houses also perfectly able to work is a good planning, the "alpha and omega." The thermal design must be avoided, quality-assurance activities are carried out and an optimal thermal insulation is required. It is also helpful if the house is south facing, however, this measure is not mandatory. It thus has the possibility of his house there to place it where you please. However, one should bear in mind that the costs in a bad location to rise, because the insulation must be adapted accordingly.
Who is a passive wish to build, which has seen the future of a very progressive house that not only saves energy but also protects the environment. Compared to "normal" houses, the construction of a passive at first sight more expensive, but you should compare long-term queue. Because the low hot water and heating costs, as well as the absence of a wall heater, make themselves seen in the long run financially noticeable.
With the ever rising heating costs, it can only be advised that through an efficient build and still beautiful to live to minimize its impact.
What is a Passive House?
A passive house is a building that is "passively" from the sun, from internal heat sources and heat recovered is kept comfortably warm - so it needs no separate active
Heating system more. The passive house is a logical development, near the (NEH). Compared to the NEH requires a passive 80% less heat, compared to a conventional building over 90%. To-expected in heating oil, a
Passivhaus the year with less than 1.5 liters per square meter from. This sensational savings
reaches the passive house alone, through its two basic principles: avoid heat loss and
free heat gains optimize!
The heat stays in the house
A very well-insulated building envelope with insulation thickness from 25 to 40 cm and windows with triple glazing and thermal-insulated frame, to ensure that the heat stays in the house.
For convenience, an air ventilation with heat recovery. More than 75% of its sensible heat in the exhaust heat exchanger to the air return. Thus, for example at 0 ° C outside the cold fresh air through the 20 ° C hot exhaust air to at least 16 ° C warm. Not only allergic and asthmatic appreciate the pollen-free and dust-poor air in the passive.
The sun heats up for free
Heat gains achieved by the passive solar, which appears through the window and
by the heat of persons and household appliances. In the summer prevents shading, e.g. a balcony or blinds, the overheating of the rooms. In the cold winter months is about the comfort ventilation also heats the incoming air, allowing for a separate heating system may be omitted. The long-term measurements in the first passive house in Darmstadt, Germany-Kranichstein show that:
Even in the century, winter 1996/97 with daily average temperatures down to -14 ° C was
the required heating capacity in the four houses so small that you have a room with 20 m² of living space with two standard-75-watt bulbs would be able to heat. It was the room temperature in the four-family house during the day constantly over 20 ° C.
The Passivhaus saves energy and money!
Is Passivhaus also affordable for ordinary wage earners? - Yes, because of the extra
Passive for improved window for ventilation and insulation are for the most part by the passive support of the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) captured. With a subsidized loan of 50,000 euros, KfW supports the construction of passive houses. The application therefor shall be made on the house. In addition, there are also regional programs.
In the long view is a passive and financially less expensive than a conventional new building: The high energy efficiency pays off.
Comfort in the Passivhaus provides residents satisfied
Even if the passive heating and saves energy, saves it in a not:
on comfort! Passivhaus residents appreciate the high comfort of their homes.
Due to the good insulation, all interior walls and floors equally warm,
even in the cold outside air to the adjacent components. This creates an
high level of comfort. Bad air in the bedroom during the night because
Frost because the window is not tilted or noise may remain, there are
Passive ventilation thanks to the comfort is not.
Also mold remains excluded - due to the high thermal and
continuous ventilation component will prevent moisture and condensation,
even at the edges of the glazing.
The following principles are a guide to the construction of passive houses:
Good heat insulation and compactness
All components of the outer shell must be very good round to be thermally insulated.
Edges, corners, connections and penetrations must be carefully planned in order to avoid thermal bridges. All non-transparent parts of the outer shell of the house is so well insulated that they have a heat transfer coefficient (U-value, formerly k-value) of less than 0.15 W / (m² K), ie per degree temperature difference and square outer surface are
not exceeding 0,15 watts lost. The more compact a building envelope is built, the easier and cheaper it can be Passivhaus standard reality.
Südorientierung freedom and shading
Appropriate orientation, shading freedom and a reduced proportion of window frames, are essential to ensure that the "passive" solar gain and the optimized key suppliers can be warmth. Particularly in free-standing single-family homes can be increased thereby Dämmaufwand avoided. In the basement housing and other compact building forms, the passive house standard, even without Südorientierung reached.
Super glazed window frames and super -
The windows (glazing including window frames) should have a U-value of 0.80 W / (m² K) can not exceed. There are special window frames with thermal insulation is required. The glazing has a g-value by 50% (g-value = total energy flow grade, percentage of space available for solar energy). The windows must be free of thermal bridges in the Dämmebene wall constructions can be installed.
Air-tightness of the building
The uncontrolled leakage through joints should test with the under-and over-pressure of 50 Pascal is not greater than 0.6 air volume per hour. By further improving the air tightness of the heat may also need to be lowered. Many houses can print test results from 0.3 to 0.4 air volume per hour.
Passive preheating of fresh air
The fresh air may have a ground heat exchanger (in the earth moved ventilation ducts) into the house to be, even on cold winter days the air is so up to a temperature of about 5 ° C vorerwärmt. This is a sensible option, but not necessarily required at each passive.
Highly efficient recovery from the exhaust with a counter flow heat exchanger
The comfort ventilation with heat causes primarily a good indoor air quality - in the second place, it serves the energy saving. In Passivhaus be at least 75% of the heat from the exhaust air through a heat exchanger back to the fresh air. For this purpose, fresh air and exhaust air in separate channels to each other led. This allows the heat without mixing of the air are transmitted. For the ventilation, however, must only a minimal power consumption should be allowed.
Warming of the water with partially renewable energies
For the consumption of fossil resources to further reduce, the preparation of the
Hot water usage in whole or in part with solar panels, wood boilers, or even
Heat pumps are made.