The passive house builder Casa Pasiva Majorca in cooperation with the real estate providers AM Real Estate Mallorca Properties will build the first luxury villas in Majorca as a certified Passive House in S'Alqueria Blanca. We like to explain you here the term "passive house" and the technique behind it:
Under a'' 'Passive house''' is usually understood a building with a ventilation system that requires due to its good thermal insulation no classical heating. A Closer Look, the term describes an energy standard for buildings. The precise definition is:
A passive house is a building which is the thermal comfort (ISO 7730) or simply by reheating after cooling the fresh air flow rate, which is necessary for adequate air quality (DIN 1946), to ensure - without having to additionally use recalculated air.
These houses are "passive", because the vast majority of the heat load from "passive" sources will be covered, such as sunlight and heat from people and technical devices. The result is a high level of comfort, coupled with low energy consumption. The design is not limited to certain types of buildings, there is egg. Including alterations and renovations, was reached in which the passive house standard.
Passive Energy Standard == ==
the precise requirements for a passive house are described in the Passive Energy Standard. This is the evolution of standards for low energy houses. After this meeting of the Passive House Institute Darmstadt designed definition must be a passive following criteria:
* Annual heat ≤ 15 kWh / (m² a)
* Heating capacity ≤ 10 W / m²
* Air tightness n50 ≤ 0.60 / h
* Primary energy ≤ 120 kWh / (m² a) (including all electrical loads)
The most significant savings compared to conventional housing is achieved when heating demand with not more than 15kWh / (m²). This is equivalent to about 1.5 litres per square meter per year.
Insulation === ===
the emphasis on energy conservation in the passive is to reduce energy loss through heat transmission | Transmission and ventilation. This is achieved by a good thermal insulation of all Umfassungsflächen (roof, basement walls, foundations, and windows), a largely tight building envelope and controlled living space ventilation with heat recovery from exhaust air. Special care must be taken that there are no thermal bridges and leakages. This applies also to the connectors.
Passive house windows
The windows are triple glazed with central generally passive, selective coatings to have filled every cavity and are rare with argon (or krypton). Although such window is always a worse U-value | value of thermal insulated walls have to be good, but makes a little shaded south window of this quality by solar energy gains in winter for a positive energy balance. Meanwhile, there are specific windows for passive constructions that guarantee, for example, with two wings, one behind the window, the higher solar gains and optimum heat retention. The Sunscreen roller blinds integrated in the gap to avoid thermal bridges in roller shutter area. This wide gap also ensures that prevent heat loss.
Ventilation === ===
To limit the ventilation heat losses, passive houses require a controlled living space ventilation. This provides the necessary ventilation for hygienic reasons. Therefore, approximately every 1 to 4 hours, the air in the house will be replaced (air quality). At these low air flows either air movement, drafts or noise is noticeable. At higher air exchange rate | air exchange rates and narrow channels to flow noise may be noticeable. The fresh, filtered air and supply air is preheated and fed to the residential dormitories come from there through Überstromöffnungen (for example, into or over the doors or by undercutting door panels) is sucked into the hallways and in kitchens, bathrooms and toilets again. From there the air passes through channels to the heat exchanger and finally as an aerial outside.
The core of the heat recovery ventilation system is a countercurrent heat exchanger. The heat from the exhaust air is delivered to 80 to 95% of the supply air, while no mixing of air takes place. In normal operation is the power consumption of such a facility without heating mode for a house about 40 watts. There are also devices with a rotary heat exchanger or rotary heat exchanger, these have the advantage that also a part of the humidity is again recovered. The air filter can also be exchanged against a pollen filter.
The costs for a facility in a family house about 6,000 bis 10.000 € (2007) completed depending on the equipment installed.
Passive ==== ====
For a geothermal air preheat exchanger can be connected in series. To this end, a pipe is laid underground, which the incoming air preheating in winter and pre-cooling in the summer. Thus, without additional pre-heating one icing of the heat recovery unit may be reduced. Also hydraulic Erdwärmetauscher are well established. The latter have the advantage of extensive maintenance. When built, they can be executed from Fundamentabsorbern in shape.
Active ==== ====
The very low heat load of a Passive heating allows only through the ventilation system. This often occurs over a water-air heat exchangers, an electric preheater or directly integrated heat pump. The air must not be heated above 57 ° C, otherwise it may cause an odor nuisance by dust smoldering. Thus, the maximum heat output can only be increased by a higher flow rate, which can bring disadvantages, such as sounds, dehydration, and drafts with him.
In a properly executed, the maximum passive heating load is always (in winter) with the hygienic air change rate of 0.3 / h..
Heating === ===
A large part of the heating demand is in passive through internal profits, ie the heat generated by people and devices as well) about solar gain (heat input through the windows, covered.
The low then any remaining residual heat can in principle) be provided by any sources (eg: natural gas heating, district heating, heat pump, electric home heating, solar thermal, or pellet stove. The required heating capacity is very low with no more than 10W / m at -10 ° C outside, so a 100m ² house has a maximum heat load of 1 kW, which can theoretically be done by an electric fan heater or hair dryer.
The power of the generator is measured, therefore, more on hot water energy needs of the residents, which is in a passive proportionately greater than the heating energy.
They do so by passive back often to so-called compact, a controlled living space ventilation (KWL), water heating, a mini-heat pump and electric auxiliary heating in one device and do not constitute''classical heating | home heating''.
== == Life style feeling
Constant temperature === ===
The essential and specific property of a passive house is the constant internal temperature. This is seen both on the year and a day as well as for individual rooms. The internal temperature changes only very slowly-in heater is off it sinks in the passive by less than 0.5 ° C during the day (in winter when no sun is shining). All walls and floors have the same temperature, this applies equally to the basement if it is within the thermal envelope. There are no "cold" walls or floors, mold growth is thereby excluded. In the summer, both to ensure the thermal insulation as well as a possibly existing geothermal heat exchanger to ensure that the building stays cool, and at least in central air conditioning is not required. This also applies to office buildings and school buildings (in the passive house standard Source:) Working Group volumes summer climate and passive-schools.
Ventilation === ===
The controlled living space ventilation of a passive house with air filter ensures better air quality than outdoor air and can assume the function of heating when the maximum heating load will in all cases and over the life of the house under 10W / m². A quick heat is a sole heating via Controlled Wohnraumlüftung reasons of comfort because of the low air change rate of 0.4 / h to 1.0 / h not possible. Additional air is always possible, but basically no longer necessary.
In some cases reported lower relative humidity, especially in periods of cold weather in winter can be increased by reducing the air exchange rate, but what will counteract the heating function only when heated above fresh air. It also offers devices with an integrated moisture recovery.
== Costs ==
Experience shows that the new building is approximately 5-15% more expensive than a conventionally built house under the current standard of energy for energy-saving regulations | EnEV. When renovating old buildings would result in additional costs to move to experience between 12% and 18%
There must be an amortization | amortization period of more than 10 years to be accepted, which depends mainly on the unpredictable energy price increase.
Additional costs incurred during passive === ===
* Especially good thermal insulation - the insulation material (by volume)
* Ventilation with heat recovery
* Very high insulating windows with triple-e glazing
* More sophisticated detail solutions for the seal (airtight envelope required)
* In some cases, expenses for special solutions (for example, for a cat flap)
=== === Reduced costs in the passive
* Fireplace features not necessary (for heat pump)
* No radiator, wall or floor heating and related technology to
* Separate heating or fuel storage is not necessary
* Lower maintenance costs for hot water and heating, no chimney sweep cost
Upkeep === ===
Because normally when a heat pump heating system is used, consumed power, the power demand is generally higher. Therefore, no separate heating charges. The heat pumps achieve using 1 kWh of electrical energy depending on the design in about 2,3-4,7 kWh of heat output. The performance rate is shown as a COP in the plant descriptions. The total power consumption (hot water, lighting, heating, etc.) of a passive-family house with 160m ² total area, according to Wolfgang Feist, the founder of the Passive House Institute in Darmstadt, will be adopted with some 6400kWh a year. Approximately half of each of these is heat (heating / hot water) and other consumption (lighting, appliances, etc.).
The maintenance cost for the building services equivalent to that of a normal house.
Promotion === ===
Passive houses in Germany are supported by a subsidized loan from the Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau. Moreover, there are many states in regional development programs. Passive houses in Austria, will comply with all provisions, supported by up to 10% of construction costs.
The province of Tyrol promotes passive in the wake of the housing subsidy with an additional support for energy-saving design with 14 points. The level of funding of a point follows from the eligible residential area (sqm) € × 8 example: support advertisers family of four, maximum subsidized living space 110m ² × 8 is 880 € per point x 14 points = € 12,320 additional funding (June 2007).
The State of Vorarlberg promoting passive houses with a sentence of up to € 1,100 per square meter up to 150m ² = 165,000 €, if the guidelines were met (income limits, floor plan) of others. This support must, however, over a period of approximately 30 years with extremely low interest rate and not wertgesichert eradicated, so this is also a strong promoting effect for young families and the construction industry directly.
Moreover, since 1 January 2007 in Vorarlberg, a law came into force, which the passive house requires mandatory for all new public buildings.
Comparison === ===
It is controversial whether the building services in a passive (ventilation + heat pump) is about as expensive) as for a conventional house with no ventilation (heating + heating. The building cost effectively in order to increase the amount, the better insulation costs (windows, insulation), according to CEPHEUS by about 5-8%. CEPHEUS The study concluded that the capitalized cost no more than 30 years in a passive house are higher than a conventional building. The higher cost of capital from the first day of the first day would lower energy costs, are facing. On balance, the advantage of the higher quality of living remained through the air, the security against future energy price increases and a better CO2 balance.
== == Retrospect and prospect
Concept === ===
The building envelope of new buildings today are generally less permeable. In consequence of this is sufficient natural ventilation with the windows closed not given. Therefore, today, installed not only in passive, ventilation systems, for the removal of contaminated air and water vapor, thus ensuring a pleasant indoor climate. Simultaneously, a good thermal insulation is desirable to maintain low energy costs. In a passive thermal insulation is now being designed so that the ventilation is sufficient for heating. The amount of heat transmitted through air is limited, at about 50 degrees would use dust smoldering. The insulation is designed so that the amount of heat is sufficient by Zulufterwärmung even on the coldest day in order to achieve comfortable indoor temperatures. In Germany, it is clear from these boundary conditions, an average heating demand of 15kWh / (m²).
=== Implementation ===
The first passive house in Germany was built in 1991 in Darmstadt Kranichstein by Dr. Wolfgang Feist. The heating energy consumption of the four town house units averaging 10kWh / m² and has remained constant since then. The first passive-detached house was built in 1998 by oehler faigle archkom in Bretten. The first German multi-family passive house is located since 1999 in Freiburg, Vauban district. This was followed by passive whole villages in Wiesbaden (21 houses), Kronsberg (32 houses) and Stuttgart (52 houses) and in the years 1999 to 2001 were under CEPHEUS further 221 rooms in five EU countries (DSF-CH-A ) at 14 sites - all built with intensive measurement programs, which confirm the complete fulfillment of expectations. The current world's largest Energon passive office building built in 2002 in Ulm. The first passive house in the United States was built in 2003 in Urbana, Illinois as the private residence of Katrin Klingenberg. In 2006, another passive in the context of social housing in Urbana, and the "BioHaus' school in Bemidji, Minnesota for the" German as a foreign language program Waldsee "finished. The project in Waldsee was using the German Federal Environmental Foundation | German Federal Environmental Foundation and funded several German companies.
Meanwhile, more than 6000 passive houses are inhabited (in 2006) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Italy (South Tyrol), including several large housing estates in which the low consumption and good comfort has been confirmed by scientific studies supporting (CEPHEUS). About half of these houses stands in Austria. There are passive when Massif | Solid, wooden | wood, earthen | clay and polystyrene formwork system design stone house. Meanwhile, office buildings, homes, schools, gymnasiums and even industrial buildings were built using passive house standard. Europe's first large office building in passive house standard with solar seasonal storage was built in 1998 as headquarters of a company in Cölbe near Marburg.
=== Modernization of existing buildings with passive house components ===
Recently, there are growing efforts to retrofit older buildings to passive house standards. Essentially the same conditions apply here as in the new building, but the planning and implementation is far more expensive craft.
A first project was successfully implemented in Hanover. Very well documented are the "modernization using passive components" in Nuremberg, Ludwigshafen and Frankfurt These alterations of the energy consumption for heating in each case was reduced by more than 85%. Were used while the same principles and components which have been developed for the construction of passive houses.